The term ‘Allocation Principle’ refers to the way any given resource is distributed. In the context of Individual Mobility Budgets, an individual would receive a finite amount of emissions allocated as an allowance, perhaps in the form of mobility credits, which can be spent on personal mobility. But how might such mobility allowances be distributed among the population in a fair way? A key objective of MyFairShare is to devise an equitable – fair – allocation principle for individual mobility budgets.
The most intuitive allocation principle is that of equality amongst all recipients. Here, each person receives an equal share of mobility allowances derived from dividing the national annual CO2 emission budget for mobility by the population count.
Each year, the total CO2 budget is reduced along the reduction plan until climate-neutral emission levels are reached, hence each year measures need to be taken to reduce the emissions by reducing emissions per vehicle trip and improve non-motorised accessibilities. While a simple even distribution may seem straightforward, it poses specific challenges.
Geographical diversity and varying individual capabilities render this equal allocation unfair. For instance, those residing in remote regions would have to overspend their budget due to existing poor accessibility and longer travel distances – factors that an individual can influence only to a limited extent. Similarly, individuals with specific circumstances, such as those with disabilities necessitating increased motorised mobility, could encounter challenges in complying with a specific emission allowance.
Therefore, MyFairShare chooses a more equitable allocation principle, which treats people according to their different needs and personal circumstances, instead of treating everyone equally. Here, the average amounts of emission allowances are redistributed to compensate for discrepancies. This is realised through the concept of a Minimum Mobility Standard.
The Minimum Mobility Standard establishes ‘floors’ which constitute a granted minimum level of mobility. This ensures that everyone can reach the nearest places providing Basic Functions of Everyday Life, no matter their personal living situation. For instance, people living in rural regions may require more mobility allowances to access crucial destinations supporting daily life within a reasonable time.
This approach guarantees that diverse needs are met, resulting in a higher mobility budget for those who need it. Allocated individual mobility budgets must not provide fewer allowances than required for this basic level. Additional allowances can be provided in the course of distributing the remaining yearly CO2 budget and people have the free choice to use them to travel to more distant places than the nearest opportunities and for non-routine purposes.
In addition to the initial allocation of mobility allowances, MyFairShare also explores the possibility to trade a share of the allocated mobility credits on a market, which provides short-term flexibility. Furthermore, additional mobility credits may exist for urgent emergency trips.
- Martens, Karel, Jeroen Bastiaanssen, and Karen Lucas. “Measuring Transport Equity: Key Components, Framings and Metrics.” In Measuring Transport Equity, 13–36. Elsevier.
- Millonig, Alexandra. 2022. “Defining a Minimum Standard for Mobility,” MyFairShare Discussion Paper.
- Millonig, Alexandra, Christian Rudloff, Gerald Richter, Florian Lorenz, and Stefanie Peer. 2022. “Fair Mobility Budgets: A Concept for Achieving Climate Neutrality and Transport Equity.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 103 (February): 103165.
- Rode, Philipp. 2022. “Enabling Sufficiency: Towards an Actionable Concept of Fairness in Mobility and Accessibility.”, MyFairShare Discussion Paper.